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NB: This is a very long note, so you might have to bookmark or schedule your self.


 The skin is the body's largest organ, and it serves as a protective barrier that protects all other cells and tissues of the body including a covering for the skeleton.
 When you think of your skin, you’re probably envisioning what’s only visible to you—the surface of your skin. But most of the issues we see that happens there, like pimples, dryness and even sweat, is impacted by reactions and activities from deep within the skin.

The Skin has three primary layers, and each serves its own purpose. Here’s why each one is so essential to keeping your skin healthy. 
And they are as follows;*The Epidermis*
The epidermis is the outer layer of skin, and you can think of it as the body’s first line of defense against bacteria, viruses and even the harsh environment (e.g extreme heat from the sun, extreme cold during winter). 
But it’s not just one uniform layer!
 1. The topmost layer is the stratum corneum, and it varies in thickness depending on where it is on the body (which is why the skin on your heel is much thicker than that of your eyelid 😉.

 2. The next layer is the stratum granulosum. The cells here produce a waxy material that makes your skin waterproof.

 3. Next up is the stratum spinosum, which is made up of cells that bind other cells together—like glue for your skin cells.

 4. The bottom layer of the epidermis is the stratum basale. It houses the stem cells, which divide to produce new skin cells. Those are then pushed up to the skin’s surface.*The Dermis*

The dermis is where much of the magic happens—in the skin, at least. Collagen and elastin make up the majority of the dermis, as well as fibroblasts (the type of cell that creates the collagen and elastic tissue). This layer serves a few purposes which are:
 1. The dermis layer includes blood and lymph vessels, which are in charge of delivering nutrients to your skin and removing by-products or toxins.
 2. Sweat glands live in the dermis. They emit sweat through your pores, which serves to both cool the body and clear out toxins.
 3. The dermis also houses the hair follicles (where your hair is anchored) and oil glands, which produce the oil that softens and smoothes skin—sometimes a little too enthusiastically, resulting in breakouts and greasiness. (You see why you always have too much Pimples ☹️)And thirdly
 *The Subcutaneous Layer*

This layer of fat is the deepest layer of skin, and it basically attaches your bones to your muscle and bones. It’s so deep, in fact, that "active ingredients from your skin care products will never reach it". This layer has a few vital duties which I'll explain

 1. The subcutaneous layer is like a thermostat. It insulates the body and also serves as an energy reserve in a pinch.
 2. It’s also like padding in that this fat protects your muscles, bones and organs against injury.
 3. Finally, the subcutaneous layer contains more blood vessels, nerve endings, the roots of your hair follicles and the deepest sebaceous glands, which create oil. 👌🏼*SKIN ANALYSIS*

Your skin can change over time. For example, younger people are more likely than older people to have a normal skin type.
Everyone's skin is normal to them, but in order to care for diverse skin types, we often group people into 4 major categories. Ascertaining your skin type is an important first step in knowing how to treat your skin, or that of your customer, what products to use, and how to have perfect skin.*Normal Skin Type*

It can be hard to define normal skin types and characteristics, as they are made up of a degree of expectations.
When it comes to normal skin, the individual generally doesn’t describe their skin as oily or dry. When oiliness and dryness are present, it’s rare and tends to be easy to get rid of or resolve.
When it comes to pore size, normal skin types feature small pores that are not engorged or easily visible.
 Normal skin doesn’t normally have a great excess of shine, and it also doesn’t tend to be cracked or flaky. Normal skin types usually exhibit few lines and wrinkles, and the skin’s tone is generally even, with no marked blemishes.
Even if there are normal skin type with few blemishes. *Normal skin is not a synonym for perfect skin* ( I used to think so before) and even those who characterize their skin as normal deal with the occasional blemish or other skin issues.
 Those with a normal skin type should use products that don’t make their skin feel overly greasy and avoid products that cause excessive dryness.
While normal skin types require less
maintenance than other skin types, it’s important to remain consistent with a regular skin care product that’s gentle on the skin but provides the key ingredients to keep your epidermis looking and feeling its best.*THE TYPES OF SKIN*

1. Normal Skin Type
2. Dry Skin Type
3. Oily Skin Type
4. Combination Skin
5. Sensitive Skin

(Please pay attention to this, it will help you when formulating creams for your different clients needs)
Let's go;;*Dry Skin Type*
If you have dry skin, you may feel a
tightness in your skin and there may also be scaly patches or flaking.
Those with dry skin generally have almost invisible pores, and may suffer from premature wrinkles and regular irritation to the

 *What Causes Dry Skin?*
 The cause of dry skin can be attributed to a variety of factors. For some, dry skin is hereditary, as genetic predispositions can affect the amount of sebum produced in the skin’s oil glands. Sebum is responsible for keeping our skin soft and supple.
Many assume that dry skin is due to a lack of moisture, but the water content of dry skin is generally found in similar levels to that of oily skin. Adding water to dry skin is actually counterproductive to treating this skin condition.*The importance of Moisturizer for Dry Skin* 

Finding a moisturizer that helps your skin replenish its vibrancy is essential.
It’s important to keep up with a regular regimen of skin care with gentle products made up of naturally derived ingredients. Those with dry skin often suffer from slight allergic reactions and tend to benefit from creams instead of lotions when it comes to moisturizers, as they contain more oil, making it
thicker and more moisturizing. The
more oil found in a moisturizer, the
better it can absorb throughout the
epidermis’ barriers to help hydrate the tissue. Before adding a daily
moisturizer to your skin regimen, make sure to test it on a small portion of your skin to ensure you don’t have an allergic reaction.

 *Can Drinking Water Hydrate My Skin?*

While drinking enough water is
important for holistic health, the
pervasive myth that upping your intake of water can improve your skin is actually a fallacy. Drinking more water doesn’t improve dry skin, but ensuring your body is as healthy as possible can, so it’s important to drink the recommended amount of water each day

 *Showering Concerns*
Try to avoid taking long, extremely hot showers. Hot water can actually strip the oil from your skin and spending prolonged periods of time under the water can dry it out even further. Save water and your skin by limiting yourself to 5-minute showers that use lukewarm to warm water.

 *Lifestyle and Habit Changes*
From showering too often to using humidifiers, there are simple changes you can make in your everyday life to ensure your dry skin gets the attention and care it needs.*Oily Skin Type*

Those with oily skin tend to notice a
great deal of shine on their face, and may deal with terrible acne breakouts.

 *What Causes Oily Skin?*
You've probably asked yourself: *Why do I have oily skin?* Oily skin is the result of both genetic factors and hormonal changes experienced in an individual’s lifetime. Those with a genetic predisposition to active oil glands produce a higher amount of sebum, an oily substance created to help keep the skin so and hydrated. This oil flows from inside the epidermis to the surface of the skin through pores and hair follicles. When the body experiences a fluctuation in hormone levels, it signals the production of androgens, a male hormone present in both men and women.

 *Oily Skin and Aging*
Those with oily skin are fortunate when it comes to signs of aging. Oily skin develops fewer wrinkles, meaning you seem to age more slowly. Oily skin types tend to have thicker skin thanks to genetic factors, and this thickness means less fine lines, as their skin is less prone to dehydration.

 *Oily Skin and Acne*
Excess sebum production can cause acne, and those with oily skin often struggle with whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. Salicylic acid is a proven acne treatmentthat many dermatologists recommend to those suffering from mild to moderate acne. It permeates into the pores, ridding them of built-up sebum, dead skin cells, and debris that may lead to breakouts.*How to Care for Oily Skin*

Many individuals struggling with oily
skin head straight for products that
promise to dry out the skin, like acne treatments that contain harsh
ingredients like benzoyl peroxide, but this can actually be counterproductive.
*Drying ingredients may trigger your *skin to work harder at producing more oil*, resulting in oilier skin.
It’s important to lightly exfoliate oily
skin, as the buildup of oil can cause
dead skin cells to become trapped in the pores and lead to acne blemishes. While you may be tempted to reach for harsher products and rough loofas, it’s important to use products that contain gentle exfoliators, like the salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a natural exfoliant that gently sloughs off the dead skin cells that may result in pore blockages.

 *Leave Your Face Alone*
Those with oily skin often struggle with acne blemishes, and it can be tempting to pick at these lesions, but this practice may exacerbate pimples on acne-prone, oily skin. *Your fingers can easily spread bacteria* and make a small breakout turn into a large one, so it’s best to find a skin care treatment that will help treat the pimples best. ( I am a culprit here, my hands never leave my face 🤦🏽‍♀️ see even on emojis 😁.. But recently I'm changing)

 *Your Makeup Routine*
Oily skin types should stay away from thick, heavy cosmetics that can lead to blocked pores. Use oil-free products crafted for oily skin types, and make sure you remove your makeup each night before going to bed, and before you head to the gym. Also be sure to
clean your makeup brushes regularly to avoid the spread of bacteria across your skin’s surface.

 *Habit and Lifestyle Changes*
While those with oily skin cannot
change their genetics, there are daily habits that may lead to the decrease of excess shine and oil production. Reevaluating your diet may be beneficial as there is a proven correlation between eating and acne.*Combination Skin*

Combination skin features two or more different skin types on the face, and typically presents with dry and flaky skin on portions of the face, with excessive oil on others. Many mistakenly believe they have oily skin when they, in fact, have combination skin type. Unless an individual’s skin is oily all over, there are likely portions of skin that are dry or normal, which would qualify under combination skin.

 *Use Two Different Moisturizers*
It’s important to use moisturizer, but
with combination skin, it can be hard  
to and the right balance between a
cream that treats the dryness found on the cheeks and the oily areas found on the T-zone. In these cases, it’s a good idea to add two different moisturizers to your skin care regimen. Use a heaviermoisturizer on your cheek area, or any skin that’s excessively dry, and use a lighter moisturizer on the oily parts of your face.

 *Stick to Natural Ingredients*
Those with combination skin often and that harsh, chemically based treatments like those that contain benzoyl peroxide can actually dry out the dry areas of their face and cause the oily areas to increase production of acne-causing excess sebum. Use products that contain natural extracts of green tea, cucumber, and chamomile to
soothe the skin and calm

 *Be Sure to Exfoliate*
Exfoliating is essential for those with combination skin. Dead skin cells on the dry part of the face will be sloughed off, while clgged pores will be unblocked and cleared. Use products contain the highest allowable concentration of salicylic acid, a natural exfoliator that can help unclog pores and slough off dead skin cells that can lead to dull-looking skin.*Sensitive Skin*

Sensitive skin types may exhibit the
characteristics of dry skin, oily skin, or combination skin, but they also deal with a great amount of redness and irritation. Normal skin types may also have sensitive skin, but these generally don’t overlap. Those with sensitive skin types should avoid harsh chemical-based skin care treatments, and can be caused by other skin conditions like allergies. Sensitive skin is easily
inflamed, so it’s important to choose the right skin care for sensitive skin to avoid any adverse reactions.*WHAT'S YOUR SKIN TYPE?*

*Normal Skin*
Those who have a normal skin type exhibit skin with few imperfections, and rarely experience breakouts. The skin is often smooth and free of blemishes, and can handle a variety of products without fear of harsh reaction. Pores are barely visible with this skin type, and the skin tends to be less sensitive.

*Dry Skin*
Those with dry skin type may exhibit barely visible pores, and feature a dull, rough complexion. The skin may feel less elastic and sag a bit more, with more visible lines. Red, irritated patches are also commonly observed in those with dry skin type. Dry skin can easily peel and crack, and may become rough and scaly, particularly on the limbs. It doesn’t produce adequate oil levels, and has a hard time maintaining and retaining healthy oils. Dry skin is very prone to quick aging.

*Oily Skin*
Oily skin produces a larger amount of sebum, and is often characterized by larger pores, a shiny complexion, and the heightened appearance of acne. If you're asking yourself "why is my skin oily?", it is likely a result of hereditary factors and hormone levels. Oily skin is less susceptible to harsh skin effects associated with aging.

*Combination Skin*
Combination skin may see various parts of the face that are dry, with flaking or scaly patches, and other portions may be oily. Most commonly, these oily patches are observed in the T-zone, which includes the nose, chin, and forehead. These areas feature more active sebaceous glands that produce higher amounts of oil. Combination skin type may also refer to skin that is sensitive to seasonal changes. 

*Sensitive Skin*
Sensitive skin type can be harder to characterize, because it can mean different things depending on the person. Sensitive skin is easily irritated, and may have a propensity for inflammation.


Any qualified dermatologist will tell you how important it is to ensure that any skin care products are chosen with your skin type in mind. If the product isn't right for your skin type it won't be as effective and could cause skin defection/reactions. This is why whether purchasing a moisturiser, cleanser or anything else for your skin, it's essential you know your skin type.

The type of skin you have depends on the amount of water and oil in your skin. If these are out of balance your skin will suffer. So for example, if your skin has too much oil you may be more prone to acne outbreaks, and your skin will appear shiny. Skin care products designed for oily skin will be oil-free, and may have ingredients designed to help rebalance the level of oil in your skin.

Another problem that many people suffer from is dry skin, which is caused by a lack of water in the skin. As well as feeling itchy and tight dry skin looks visibly flaky and can even cause fine lines. Products designed with dry skin in mind will usually be water-based to add much needed moisture to the skin.

It's also possible to have combination skin. This means that some areas of the face will be oily while others will be dry. People with this skin type may want to use products designed specifically for combination skin, or use different products on the different areas of their face. Finally there is normal skin; people with this skin type have the right balance of oil and water.

Some people can tell their skin type simply from looking in the mirror. Others might be able to feel whether they have oily, dry or normal skin or be happy taking an online test. If, however, you don't feel confident about what type of skin you have, it's best to speak to someone who specialises in dermatologyto ensure u only use the products best suited for your skinWHAT IS THE TERM SKINCARE???

Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients.

Great we are moving forward💪🏼
We will now consider carrier oils and essential oils used in skincareSome examples OF CARRIER OILS ARE: 
Grape seed oil

Sweet almond oil

Avocado oil

Coconut oil

Olive oil

Apricot kernel oiL

Argan oil

Borage seed oil

Castor oil

Evening primerose oil

Hazelnut oil

Hempseed oiL

Jojoba oil

Sesame oil

Peanut oil 

kernel oiL

Sunflower oil*Getting To Know Carrier Oils*

A carrier oil is naturally a plant-based oil extracted from vegetarian sources i.e. a nut or a seed and have a neutral smell. They aren’t volatile like essential oils, which makes them an excellent medium for dilution and application. The term carrier oil is derived from their purpose in carrying high-quality essential oils to provide specific therapeutic effects for the skin.
 Finding the best oil combination for your skin can help balance oil production, improve your skin texture and reduce the signs of aging. Each carrier oil offers a different combination of therapeutic properties and when you dilute an essential oil with a carrier oil, you can also control its concentration before applying.
Carrier oils are high in fat and have a limited shelf life. Depending on the type, oils with a short shelf life should typically be used within 6 months, while oils with a longer shelf life may stay good for up to 1 year. It’s important to store oils in their original air-tight containers in a cool, dark place, such as the pantry, to maximize shelf li

 Each carrier oil offers a different combination of therapeutic properties and can vary widely in their consistency, absorption, aroma, shelf life, and other characteristics. Carrier oils can be blended to change or combine their properties, so you can mix and match until you find the blend that’s just right for you!

In case you are confused on how we got to oils, in skincare we have two types of oils; 
1). Carrier oils and 
2). Essential oils. (Please follow through with the coming note on essential oils as not all essential oils are suitable for skin. Some are used in making candles and air purifiers)*What are Essential Oils?*

An essential oil is that aromatic, volatile liquid that comes from inside flowers, shrubs, trees, roots, bushes, and seeds. Many people call essential oils the lifeblood of plants because they carry oxygen and nutrients within the plant and are part of the regenerative process of the plant.
Essential oils play many roles including infection control, humidity control, hormonal effects, wound healing, and attracting or repelling insects, birds, and animals.

 Essential oils, contrary to the use of the word “oil” are not really oily, and they are clear and volatile. There are seemingly endless choices when it comes to buying essential oils, and for every oil, there are at least a dozen uses. There are many ways to use essential oils:
📌Incorporate with carrier oils to make massage oils
📌Add in minute quantities to bath, along with a carrier such as milk
📌Incorporate with a carrier oil to make insect repellent
📌Incorporate in cosmetic, lotion and healing ointments
📌Use in shampoos, conditioners and hair products
📌Use to add antibacterial and antiviral qualities to room-fresher sprays

 Aromatherapy is a method of employing essential oils to protect, heal and beautify. Essential oils can help the body mitigate everyday ailments; strengthen your immune system, organs, and glands, fight bacteria, fungi and viruses; lower your stress levels; and tone, relax and strengthen your muscles. They can assist in healing the body itself, help to keep your skin and hair in tiptop condition and your home fragrant and clean.

 Essential oils are volatile, which means they evaporate rapidly and contain the natural smell and characteristics of the plant. This can make them too strong to apply undiluted. Carrier oils do not evaporate, making them perfect for diluting especially strong essential oils — reducing the concentration of the essential oil without altering its therapeutic qualities.Some List Of Essential Oils Are As Follows:
Tea tree oil
Peppermint oil
Lemon oil
Lemongrass oil
Rosemary oil
Black pepper
Nutmeg oil
Carrot seed oil
Yang ylangskincare is divided into:
*organic promixing
*organic pro-mix plus/advanced promixing
*Super advanced promixing(super halfcast kit and swiss whiteining)
 For this purpose of this class we are starting with organics first then we move up to other stages.
First we will be looking at things/equiptments needed in cream making. 
*Measuring spoons *Electric Mixer
*mixer/stick blender
*measuring cup & spoons
* double boiler
* bucket
* towels
* whisker
* bowls
* funnel
*Wooden spoons
* Mortar and pestle
*Your packaging containersLet's talk about d difference between Organic product n chemical- based product
I.e Natural Skin Care
Products Versus
Chemical-Based Ones
Have you ever been puzzled whether to
switch to natural skin care products or
stick with
chemical-based ones? If you are searching for a reason (or two) to go one way or the other… read on.
First, let me ask you this… if you had two
different products - a natural product and a
chemical-based product - and both of the products are very similar in the way they feel and their outcomes - which one would you choose?
Oh, and let me add something else to this
equation, the chemical-based product looks promising on your skin at first, but it is most likely damaging in the long run.
Would that impact your final selection
process now?
Let's look at each category a bit closer, so we can arrive at a more educated decision from here.
Do You Use Chemical-
Based Skin Care
Unlike natural skin care products, these
products are made up of different kinds of
chemicals and synthetic ingredients. In spite of the fact that some chemicals make
them effective, they increase the probability of developing into skin allergies, irritations
and side effects. These chemicals,especially, are way too abrasive to individuals with sensitive skin.
As a result, more harm is often done than good. Also, you are at risk of premature aging if you use chemicals
Toxic ingredients, that are not found in natural skin care products, are prominent in these chemicals, which overtime exhaust
your skin and make it sag because it loses
its natural reproductive elements.
In fact, unnatural products can actually
cause acne. Many of the chemical products
used in unnatural skin care lines can cause
impurities. Common ingredients like
mineral oil can attract free radicals and
result in blemishes, and early aging.
Considering Natural Products For Skin
Now, natural skin care products are made
from non-artificial ingredients like natural
oils, plants (like seaweed, green tea), fruit extracts and fruit acids. These products are known to effectively treat the skin and nourish it. Most natural products have powerful antioxidants that assist in slowing down the aging process and
creating a younger looking skin.
Skin care derived directly from nature is one of the best ways to get and keep your skin healthy and vibrant. Unfortunately, when choosing a product, you must keep in mind that not all natural skin care
products are created equal. 
Natural product formulations can vary wildly from brand to brand and many are still made with silicones that are simply not skin- friendly. The reason many brands are made with silicone is because, as an ingredient, it is much cheaper and it makes a lotion or cream feel more luxurious once you apply it. While silicone feels nice on your body it adds no real value.
Does the product have to be 100% natural
or organic? As long as it is 95% natural, it
is a safe bet, but you have to look at the
ingredients and make sure that they are of
high quality. Even if you were to receive an
organic label from the NAFDAC your skin
care must contain at least 95 percent organically produced ingredients. 

A product with more than 95% in natural
ingredients is even better. 
When it comes
to preservatives (the ones that kill bacteria,
fungus and moulds), make sure that the
product does not use or contain any
parabens .
So since our skin is the largest organ of our body, it is important to treat it with extra attention and care. Many of us, health individuals, are becoming more and more aware of the food we put into our bodies. The very same attitude
should be taken when considering skincare
products, as well. Whether it is face cream, body lotion, anti-aging face serums or acne regimens, our skin absorbs over half of the products we put on it, so why punish it with toxic ingredients?
What products do you use today? 
Are you even considering using natural products in the future Or now?
(Side Note)After exfoliating you moistorize the skin.pls make sure the moisturizer you use on the face contains sunscreen nd tell your customers not to wear make up for the rest of the day to avoid breakout.
Cleansing is wen you use water nd soap or wipes to clean the skin surface.*Comedogenic Oils*

An ingredient that causes comedones is comedogenic. When you have acne prone skin, the last thing that you will always avoid to put on your skin is OIL. However, oils can be a good addition to your skincare as oils are a natural way to deliver fatty acids and nutrients to your skin. There is the source that stated people with acne have a low linoleic acid content in their skin.

 Oils are gentle and natural will not irritate your skin. Using oils on oily skin can help to regulate sebum production, you just have to ensure using 
oil that will not clog your pores.
The comedogenic scale is a five-point scale that tells you how comedogenic that ingredient is. An oil that has a comedogenic rating of 0 is widely believed to be non-comedogenic and will not clog your pores and oils that have a rating of 4 – 5 should be avoided as is basically a guaranteed chance of breaking out.CARRIER OILS SUITABLE FOR THE DIFFERENT SKIN TYPES

1. *Oily skin*
 Argan oil, Aprocot Kernel oil, Evening primrose oil, Hemp oil, Hazelnut oil, Jojoba oil, Rosehip
seed oil, Safflower oil, Tamanu oil, Sesame oil,
Grape seed oil

2. *Dry skin*
Olive oil, Macadamia nut oil, Avocado oil,Canola oil, Neem oil, Hazelnut, Sweet Almond oil, Argan oil, Rosehip seed oil, Sunflower oil, Apricot Kernel oil

3. *Extremely Dry skin*
Coconut, Shea oil/ butter, Mango butter, Cocoa
butter/ oil, kokum butter

4. *Combination skin*
 Sweet almond, Argan, Apricot, Sesame,Rosehip

5. *Normal skin*
Jojoba, Sweet Almond, Sunflower, Grapeseed oil, Apricot Kernel oil

6. *Acne-Prone skin*
Jojoba, Evening Primrose, Argan, Grapeseed oil, Sesame

7. *Mature skin*
Rosehip, Sweet Almond, Avocado, Tamanu, Sunflower, Apricot kernel, Moringa oil

8. *All skin types*
Jojoba, Hazelnut, Meadowfoam, Rosehip, Sweet Almond oil

 *Carrier oil substitution incase you don't have that particular oil*
📌 Argan Oil – Hemp Seed Oil, Sunflower Oil

 📌Avocado Oil – Olive Oil, Castor Oil

📌Castor Oil – Wheat Germ Oil, Sesame Oil, Avocado Oil

📌Coconut Oil – Grapeseed Oil, Jojoba Oil, Argan Oil

📌Evening Primrose Oil – Black Currant Oil, Flaxseed Oil, Borage Seed Oil, Vitamin E Oil

📌Emu Oil – Jojoba Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Andiroba Oil

📌Grapeseed Oil – Safflower Oil, Sunflower Oil, Apricot Kernel Oil

📌Hemp Seed Oil – Olive Oil, Macadamia Nut Oil

📌Jojoba Oil – Sweet Almond Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Sunflower Oil

📌Macadamia Nut Oil – Hazel Nut Oil, Sweet Almond Oil

📌Olive Oil – Canola Oil, Sunflower Oil

 📌Rosehip Oil – Jojoba Oil

📌Safflower Oil – Camellia Seed Oil

📌Sunflower Oil – Soybean Oil, Canola Oil

📌Sweet Almond Oil – Apricot Kernel Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Sunflower Oil*ESSENTIAL OILS SUITABLE FOR THE VARIOUS SKIN TYPES*

1. *Oily Skin*
 Bergamot, Cypress, Geranium, Frankincense,
Chamomile, Jasmine, Junniper, Lavender, Lemon,
Lime, Marjoram, Orange oil, Palmarosa, Rosemary,
Ylang Ylang

2. *Dry Skin*
Cedarwood, Geranium, Chamomile, Hyssop,
Lavender, Myrrh, Neroli, Palmarosa, Patchouli,
Sandalwood, Rosemary

3. *Combination Skin*
Bergamot, Fennel, Frankincense, Geranium,
Chamomile, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, Neroli,
Orange,Palmarosa, Patchouli, Rosemary

4. *Normal Skin*
Fennel, Frankincense, Geranium, Chamomile,
Jasmine, Lemon, Neroli, Palmarosa
5. *Acne-Prone skin* Lemon, Lavender, Chamomile, Bergamot, Ylang
Ylang, Geranium

6. *All skin types* 
Geranium, Chamomile, Palmarosa, Ylang YlangWell we are done with the oils, but let me show you some liquids used in place of and along side water, during formulation.

*Flora waters /hydrosols*

Witch hazel


Lavender water

Tea tree water




ChamomileAlso I will be showing you some types of butters used in Organic skincare

1). Mowrah butter
2). Shea butter
3). Kokum Butter
4). Mango butter
5). Cocoa butter
6). Babassu butter📌 *Examples of Carrier Oils for Acne Fighting include:* Argan oil, Grape seed oil, Evening Primrose oil, Tamanu oil, Jojoba, Rosehip seed oil.
*Examples of Essential Oils for
Acne Fighting include:* Lemon EO, Tumeric EO, Teatree EO, Geranium EO, Lavender EO, Junniper EO, Cypress EO and others.

*Examples of Repair/ anti-aging Carrier Oils include:* Pomegranate oil, Apricot, Wheat Germ oil, Jojoba oil, Rosehip oil.
*Examples of Repair/ Anti-aging EO are:* Rose oil, Carrot seed oil, Frankincense EO, Fennel EO, Ginger EO, Orange Oil, Oregano, Jasmine EO, Hyssop EO, Bay EO and others.
*Examples of Glow Butters and Carrier Oils include*: Mango butter, Rosehip, Baobab, Marula and others.
*Examples of Glow Essential Oils are:* Carrot seed oil, Papaya oil,
Camwood oil, Lime oil, Junniper oil, Neem oil, Sandalwood oil, Vanilla oil, Manuka oil, Mandarin oil, Tumeric oil among others.

*Examples of Lightening Carrier Oils include:* This is best achieved by using macerated/ oil infusion. Common/best oils for infusion are cold-pressed light weight and high adsorbent oils such as: Sunflower oil, Almond oil, Castor oil, Rice bran oil, Baobab oil, Soya oil.2nd class .....


Just as the name resonates, Base Solvents are ingredients that serve as *foundational/ base ingredient* in the formulation.

They usually make up to 50% or more when they are used in making Natural/Organic skincare products.

Common examples of *Base Solvents* are: *Distilled/ Deionised Water*, *Aloe-vera Juice*, *Hydrosols*

*Hydrosols* are produced during the process of making *Essential oils by steam distillation*.

*Hydrosols* are like *water* but are richer in nutrients than *ordinary or deionized/ distilled water*.

Another class of ingredients are *Emulsifiers*.

Emulsifiers are class of Ingredients *that make two immiscible liquids miscible through the process of emulsification*. E.g. Water and oil do not mix together, emulsifier help to mix water and oil together
In soap making, Emulsifiers are referred to as *SURFACTANTS*.

When making soap Surfactants *primarily* make *Water* and *Oil* mix together 
E.g. of Surfactant is *Lye* (sodium hydroxide)

Common examples of *Emulsifiers* are : *E-wax, Xyliance, ECOMulse, Olivem 1000*

 3. *CO-EMULSIFIER*: This class or category of ingredients may also be called *Stabilizers or Thickeners*.

 Stabilizer or Thickener help to *increase the consistency, volume and viscosity* of cosmetic products, thereby providing *more stability and better product performance👍*

Common examples of *Co-emulsifier* are ... *Stearic Acid, Cetyl alcohol, Cetearyl Alcohol, Beeswax, Xanthan Gum, Candelilla Wax*

 They support the function of *Emulsifier* ... so they are called *Co-emulsifier*

Please note that when mixing water and oil together, adding a co-emulsifier alone won't mix the water and oil together. *Emulsifier* is the *main* class of ingredient that helps to perfectly mix water and oil together.

Emollients are plant oils that contain *essential (important) fatty acids*.

Emollients serve major functions such as- *soothing, smoothing and softening of the skin texture*.

Sub categories of Emollient include *Carrier oils and Butters*.

*Carrier oils* are essential fatty oils that appear as ‘liquid’ at room temperature while *butters* are ‘solid’ at room temperature.

Common examples of Carrier oils are: *Jojoba oil, Argan oil, Rosehip seed oil, Pomegranate, Olive Squalene, Macadamia, Grapeseed oil*.

Common examples of plant Butters include: *Shea butter, Mango butter, Coffee butter*.

Carrier oils are oils derived from the *Fatty part* of a plant.

The *fatty part* of a plant is usually the *seeds, fruits, kernels or nuts*.
Carrier oils are also called *Vegetable oils* or *Base oils*.

We refer to *Vegetable oils as *Carrier Oils* because of their ability to *penetrate through the skin*.

Since Carrier oils have ability to penetrate into the skin, we use them to ' *carry* ' and ' *dilute* ' *Essential Oils*

*Essential Oils* are really *harsh* when applied directly on the skin ( *they can burn the skin if applied directly on the skin*).

More so, *Essential Oils* really dry fast when applied on the skin, they cannot penetrate into the skin by themselves. 

So, Carrier Oils help in *diluting* and *carrying* *essential oils* into the skin... thus, the name *Carrier* oil.

Like I mentioned earlier, *Carrier oils* are oils that are pressed from the *seeds, fruits, kernels or nuts* of plants.

How are *Vegetable/ Carrier Oils* Made?

*Carrier oil* can be made through any of the four (4) different methods 👇:
1. *Mechanical Extraction*

2. *Solvent Extraction and Distillation*

3. *Refined Process*

4. *Oil Infusion or Maceration of Oil*5. *HUMECTANT*
This category of ingredients are ingredients that have *the ability to attract water to the skin and draw water into the skin*

Common Examples of ingredients in this category are: *Glycerin, Honey, Panthenol (pro-vitamin B5), Hyaluronic Acid, Sodium Lactate*

When *humectants* attract water to the skin, *occulsive* are ingredients that *help to keep the attracted moisture from escaping too quickly from the skin cells*. 

That is, *Occulsive help retain water* in the skin cells.

Common example of ingredient that perform *occulsive* function are *Waxes*: *Beeswax*, *Candelilla wax* are common examples of occulsive ingredient

These class of ingredients give *Aroma, healing or therapeutic properties* to customer. 

Some class of this ingredient are used as Fragrance, due to their intense smell.

Common examples of Aromatherapy ingredients are: *Lavender essential oil, Lemon essential oil, Tea tree essential oil*

These are ingredients that *help improve shelf life of oils, so they won't go rancid on time*.

Common examples of Antioxidants are: *Vitamin E oil, Rosemary oil, Grape seed oil*9. *HIGH PERFORMANCE/ ACTIVE INGREDIENTS*

These are ingredients that help *boost the efficiency of a skin care product*.

Common examples of this category of ingredients are:

*Vitamins* such as Vitamin B, Vitamin C, 

*Acids*- Alpha Hydroxy Acids and Beta Hydroxyl Acids
*Dry Powders* such as Mulberry powder, Camwood powder, Sandalwood powder, Gluthathione powder, Licorice powder,

*Botanical Extracts*

These are ingredients that *do not provide any function* in the product but *only add* to the *attractiveness, beauty or outlook* of a skin care product.

Common examples of *Aesthetic Ingredients* are:👇🏽

1. *Natural flavors such as vanilla pod*. *Vanilla pod* give the *scent of vanilla when used to make a product*.

2. *Rose petals* adds beauty and makes customers believe that manufacturers used natural ingredients to make the product

3. *Mica* - they add high pigmentation colors to skincare products.

*Preservatives* are added to skincare products *that contain water*, in order *to kill or stop growth of microbes in a product*.

This way, preservatives help to extend the product life cycle.

Common examples of *Preservatives* used in natural skincare products are *Optiphen, Germall plus, Optiphen plus, MethylParaben*

*Chelating Ingredients/ agents* are ingredients that *help prevent heavy (toxic) metals* from entering into our body/ bloodstream.

Toxic metals are usually deposited in the water we use in bathing or through *the old (rusty) pipes* that bring water to our bathrooms/ toilets.

The term *Chelate* means that this class of ingredient *react with toxic metals to reduce their potency* on our skin.

Chelating agents provide similar function to *Preservatives* in that they *help preserve products from becoming too harsh on the skin by also reacting with trace of toxic metals in the skincare products*

Popular example of *Chelating agents* are *Sodium EDTA, Tetrasodium EDTA*... if you try to read the list of ingredients of your *soaps or hand wash*, you will normally see this ingredient listed.

What are *pH Adjusters* ?? 
Just as the name sound, they are ingredients that help increase or reduce the pH of a product.

Common examples are:
*Citric acid, lactic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate**PH and Skincare*

Potential hydrogen, or pH, refers to the acid-alkaline ratio of a substance, including the food you eat, the skincare products you use, or your skin itself. The pH scale ranges from 1 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline), with 7 is neutral. Our skin’s normal pH range is between 4.0 to 6.5, with 5.5 being the most optimum.

Our skin is naturally a bit acidic as it serves as the body’s first defense mechanism against foreign elements. Acidity serves to keep allergens, bacteria, wind, and pollutants out while keeping moisture in. However, when our skin is at a high pH, our skin will not be happy in an alkaline environment as its barrier function is impaired, so it becomes dehydrated and lets irritants dive in to create inflammation. And also enzymes that break down collagen are activated at higher pH levels, so you age faster. To help keep skin’s pH from getting out of whack, you need to pay attention to the pH level of your skincare products.

When you measure the pH of your cosmetic products such as creams, lotions, and shampoos, you need to dilute the product in distilled water, blend the mixture well and then measure the pH.

Step 1. Take a sample
Take a small sample of your product and transfer it into a clean, disinfected beaker.
It is a good idea to prepare more product to have some extra for pH measurement. This means if you are planning to have a 50g jar of cream, make 60g as your total batch so you can have the extra for pH control.
In the usual case, the sample you use for pH measurement is around 1g-5g only so not to waste your product.

Step 2: Make a dilution
PH is temperature dependent, wait until your sample reaches the room temperature and use room temperature water for your dilutions.
Dilute your sample in distilled water, with a ratio of 1:9, e.g. product to water ratio is 10% and 90%, respectively.
For example, if you have a 1g sample (10%), you will need to add 9g distilled water to it. Stir the dilution well.

 Step 3: Check the pH
Although most modern pH-meters are equipped with a temperature sensor, if there are extreme temperature fluctuations in your country (icy cold in winter and hot in summer), you may even need to thermostat your samples for a few minutes before measurement.
If you are using paper strips, dip it in the dilution and check the results using the chart on the packaging.
If you are using a pH meter, dip it into the solution and keep it there till the reading stabilises. (Please also check the manufacturer’s recommendations.)When the pH of the product is lower than your desired range, you will need to increase the pH: –
Sodium bicarbonate (Baking soda) – readily available and use
Blend 10% Sodium bicarbonate into 90% distilled water. This means that you add 1g of pH modifier to 9g distilled water. Gentle heating may help with dispersion.​
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Blend 10% Sodium hydroxide into 90% distilled water. This means that you add 1g of sodium hydroxide to 9g distilled water. ALWAYS add sodium hydroxide to the water not the other way around, or it will create strong fumes.
Powder to be added to the water phase. L-Arginine is an essential or semi-essential amino acid necessary for protein synthesis. When you dilute it in water (10%), it has a pH between 10.5-12, and this is a suitable base to increase the pH of your cosmetic products as it is quite easy (and safe) to work with. Compared to NaOH and baking soda, using L-Arginine is the mildest way to increase the pH of your products.*ADJUSTING THE PH*
When you measure the pH of the product, one of these 3 possibilities will be presented: –

Scenario 1: The pH of the product is exactly in the range that you want and in the range that your preservative system has the highest efficiency.

Scenario 2: The pH of the product is higher than your desired range, and you need to reduce it.

Scenario 3: The pH of the product is lower than your desired range, and you need to increase it

For scenario 1, it is the perfect case, but it rarely happened, and this means you need not do a single thing.
For the 2 other scenarios, you will need pH modifiers, ingredients that are added to adjust the pH of the cosmetic product. They are usually used in a very small percentage and added in the final steps of the formulation process.
When the pH of the product is higher than your desired range, you will need to decrease the pH: –
Citric acid
Citric acid is usually sold as a powder (anhydrous or hydrated) or as a solution. Blend 10% citric powder into 90% distilled water. This means that you add 1g of citric acid powder to 9g distilled water.
Lactic acid (solution)
Although originally a powder, is commercially available as an 80% solution (this is the max. available concentration commercially available). It is much more expensive than citric acid, and in 80% concentration, it could be quite corrosive (handle with care, avoid contact with skin). Lactic acid can generally be purchased at an 80% strength, and you can then dilute it further with distilled water to make 40%, 25% or 10% solutions.
Lactic acid is often used for its additional moisturizing benefits.
**Do not use vinegar, lemon juice or household cleaners to reduce the pH*EXFOLIATION*

Ever wonder why a baby’s skin is so
soft It’s because babies naturally replace their skin cells every few days. As you grow older, however, the rate of cell turnover slows down dramatically. Dead cells on your skin’s surface hang around much longer, a fact that tends to accentuate those fine lines and can make your complexion look dull and lifeless. By removing these dead skin cells, exfoliating your skin—whether physically with scrubs or chemically using acids or enzymes—helps make up for the gradual slowing down of your natural skin-renewal process, improving the tone and texture of your skin. Here are some of the reasons why you need to exfoliate your skin regularly:

 *The 5 Key Benefits of Exfoliation*
It fades age spots by removing dead skin cells containing the pigment.
It unclogs pores and allows the release of natural skin oils.
It minimizes pore size and superficial scars.
It makes fine lines and wrinkles look
less visible because the newly exposed layer of skin reflects light
It allows better absorption of
moisturizers, antioxidants and
collagen-boosting serums by removing the top layer of dead and damaged cells. This also holds true for acne medications and other types of skin treatments for which penetration is important. This is another reason why regular exfoliation should be part of a basic skin care regimen.*SUNSCREEN*

The Importance of Sunscreen
Is your bottle of sunscreen hidden in the back of the closet, jumbled in among the swimsuits and towels, only to be unearthed for beach days? If so, it’s time to bring it out into the light. Sunscreen is an effective protective agent against damage from the sun’s powerful rays for all ages, genders, and
skin types. Regular application lessens the chance of developing skin cancer in adulthood. And sunscreen is even more powerful when combined with other
methods of skin protection: seek shade during the brightest time of the day (between 10:00 am – 4:00 pm), wear protective clothing such as long-sleeved shirts and hats, and invest in sunglasses that block UV rays.

 *Sunscreen benefits*
In its most crucial role, sunscreen protects your skin from the sun’s
harmful ultraviolet rays, which come in two forms – UVA and UVB rays. UVA rays are most commonly associated with skin aging; these beams cause fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots that make skin look prematurely older. UVA rays have the ability to pass through glass,
meaning your skin is exposed to them while you are driving and standing or sitting in front of windows with the blinds open. UVB rays are the ones most commonly associated with sunburns.

Unlike UVA rays, UVB beams cannot pass through glass. Both UVA and UVB rays are carcinogens(cancer-causing), which is why you should invest in a sunscreen that offers broad-spectrum protection against both types. Even if you have darker skin or tan rather than burn, skin cancer is non-discriminatory and can be diagnose for any age, gender, or skin type.
Sunscreen keeps your skin healthier in other ways as well. It protects sensitive skin against sunburn and it reduces the appearance of sun damage – discolorations and dark spots, sagging or leathery skin, and wrinkles. These protections help your skin maintain a more even skin tone overall.*EMULSION* 

 What are *Emulsion based products* ?

These are products made of *Water* and *Oils* (and butters) and blended by *Emulsifier* and Coe-emulsifier (optional).

Common examples of Emulsion are : *creams* and *lotions*

 ▪︎ *Creams*

Creams contain *lesser water when compared to lotions but contain more oils than lotion*.

*Lotions* have same ingredients with cream but *have more water content than creams*. 

As a result, lotions are *lighter, and easier to apply*.
 Lotions have *lower amount of oil and butter* in them.

They are better recommended for use during the *sunny or hot climate*. 

This is because lotion hydrates well and are easily absorbed into the body.I'm going to explain some skincare terms that we always mix up one for another

1⃣SKIN GLOW OR BRIGHTENING is not about taking your skin to lighter or whiter shades – instead, it’s all about transforming dull, tired, and sluggish-looking skin into fresh, glowing skin by increasing radiance and restoring vibrancy to the skin.

2⃣SKIN LIGHTENING  has to do with;
Evening out skin tone by getting rid of dark spots caused by sun damage, acne scars, age spots and skin conditions like melasma.
Restoring the skin back to its ‘original,’ pre-sun or light-exposed skin color.
Lightening your skin to its original, natural skin color. When people use skin lightening products, the goal is normally to lighten the skin. With consistent use, it helps the skin lighten several shades and returns the dermis to a healthier color. Most of these products are made with chemical called tyrosinase inhibitors. This active ingredient stops an enzyme in the skin from producing melanin.

3⃣SKIN WHITENING involves the use of stronger lightening agents on the skin to produce an intense whitening effect that is several shades lighter than your natural skin tone.


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