### DRAWING 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONAL SHAPES FOR BOTH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES

1. RULER
It is a piece of wood, metal or plastic with straight edges and marked with measurements.

Uses
It is used for measuring and drawing straight lines.
2. THE 45 SET SQUARE
The 45 set square is right angled triangle with two sides equal. It is mostly made of plastic.

Uses
1. for drawing parallel lines

2. For drawing and measuring angles mostly angle 45 degree.
3. THE 60 – 30 SET SQUARE
It is like a scalene triangle. Mostly made from plastic.

Uses
1. it is used for drawing scalene triangles

2. it is used for measuring and drawing angle 30 and 60

4. THE PROTRACTOR
The protractor has the shape of a semi-circle with with the angle at the center divided into 180 degrees.

Uses
1. it is used for measuring and drawing angles

2. its base can be used to draw straight lines

5. THE PAIR OF COMPASSES
It is a V-shaped instrument with two arms. The longer arm is usually with a pointed end like the needle. The second arm on the other hand is shorter, having a hole and a fastener that holds a pencil into place.
Uses
It is used for measuring lines or distances.

DRAWING A RECTANGLE WITH A RULER AND SET SQUARE
To draw a rectangle, we make use of a ruler and a set square. For example draw a rectangle with length 6cm and breadth 4cm

Procedure
1. draw 6cm straight line, name it BC

2. Using a set square, draw a 4cm vertical line from point B to A and another one from point C to D.

3. Join A to D.

DRAWING A RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLE WITH THE AID OF A RULER AND SETSQUARE
EXAMPLE: Using a ruler an set square, draw a right - angled triangle ABC, with side AB = 3cm and BC = 6cm
Procedure
1. Draw the 6cm line as a horizontal line.

2. Using the set square, draw a vertical line 3cm at B to A.

3. Join A to C.

DRAWING CIRCLES
There are several ways to draw a circle, but the most common method is by tracing the edge of circular objects. But the most accurate is by using a pair of compasses.
Drawing a circle using a pair of Compasses
Example: Draw a circle of radius 3cm
Procedure
1. With your compass measure out on your ruler the radius of the circle that is 3cm.

2. With the measurement from the ruler, place the sharp point at a center point, then swing the compass to draw the circle.

DRAWING THE CUBE
A cube is a 3-dimensional shapes made from square and has all it sides equal.

Procedure
1. First draw a square ABCD with the aid of a ruler and pencil.

2. Find the centre of the square. That is measure to find the midpoint of AB, BC, CD and DA. Name them EFGH. Then join EG and FH to cross at O. O is the centre of the square

3. From the centre point, draw another square with the same dimensions.

4. join all the corners, i.e. A – O, B – I, C – J and D – K to form the cube.

DRAWING A CUBOID

Drawing a cuboid is similar to drawing a cube since all the sides of a cuboid are made of rectangles.

Procedure
1. Draw a rectangle ABCD using a ruler and a pencil.

2. Find the centre of the rectangle. This is done by finding the midpoint of ABCD. This is done by finding the midpoint of AB, DC, AD and BC. Name them EFGH.
Join EG, FH to cross at O. O is the centre of the rectangle.

3. From the centre point, draw another rectangle with the same dimensions.

4. Join all the corners, that is A – O, B – M, C – N, D – P to form the cuboid.

Monday - Thursday Schedule
- List instruments for drawing and their uses. Draw a rectangle
Resources
Textbook, ruler, Set square, protractor, compasses
Various Shapes of 2 and 3-D, box, match sticks, milo tin, dice, ball

- Draw triangles using a set square. Draw circles using a pair of compasses.
Resources
mathematics Book 4, page 286
ruler, Set square, protractor, compasses
Various Shapes of 2 and 3-D, box, match sticks, milo tin, dice, ball.

- Draw a cube.
Resources
Mathematics Book 4, page 322
ruler, Set square, protractor, compasses
Various Shapes of 2 and 3-D, box, match sticks, milo tin, dice, ball.

- Draw a Cuboid.
Resources
mathematics Book  4, page 323-324, Cardboard, Various Shapes of 3-D, Shape collage, box, match sticks, milo tin, dice, ball.

STARTER
- Begin the lesson by telling them to bring their maths set, and explaining to them each and every instrument found inside it.

- Begin the lesson by telling them to trace their set square and name the shape formed.

- Begin the lesson by showing them a carton and ask them what shapes make up the cartons.

- Begin the lesson by showing them a carton and ask them what shapes make up the cartons.

OBJECTIVES
- Pupils should be Able to ;
a. list and identify the drawing instruments.
b. mention the uses of each of the drawing instruments.

- Pupils should be Able to ;
a. draw a triangle by using a ruler and set square.
b. draw a circle with the aid of compass.

- Pupils should be  able to ;
a. To identify a cube and its properties.
b. draw a cube by using only a ruler.

- Pupils should be able to ;
a. To identify a cuboid and its properties.
b. draw a cuboid by using only a ruler.

### DO YOU SEE THESE STRANGE LINES ON YOUR NAILS? DON'T JOKE WITH IT, THIS IS WHAT IT SAYS OF YOUR HEALTH

As I’ve gotten older, those vertical ridges on my nails seem to be getting more and more prominent.

That’s when I decided to do some research to see if those ridges meant anything about my health, and if there was anything I could do to get rid of them.
What They Mean About Your Health After a lot of research, I did find that there is a small, rare possibility that those ridges can mean an underlying medical condition or possibly even nail trauma.
But for most of us, it’s completely normal as we age to see them getting more noticeable, especially if you have dry skin or skin conditions such as eczema.
I’m 36, and they’ve only recently started bothering me, but I’m relieved to find that they are most likely harmless. I’m just getting old.
But Why Are They There? They’re basically like wrinkles of the nails! As we age, the nail matrix gradually starts to lose it’s effectiveness in some areas, causing your nails to grow out uneven, resulting in what we see as lines or ridges that run from the c…

### NUMERATION AND NUMBER NOTATION LESSON PLAN AND LESSON NOTE FOR PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS

Guide Days Content  Starter  Plenary Class Activities Homework

Monday Counting and writing whole numbers up to 1000.
Counting and writing numbers in units of thousands.
Writing Numbers in Units of thousands in words.

Resources Beads, Beans, Number chart, match box  Introduction to numeration and notation  Numeration is defined as the act of counting numbers in words or numerals. Example 1 is one, 2 is two, 10 is ten, 100 is one hundred and 1000 is one thousand while notation is the act or system of using symbols to represent numbers. Example 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10
Counting and writing whole numbers up to 1000 Counting and writing whole numbers up to 1000 will be a lot easier if we classify the numbers into three groups: a. 0 - 9 (these are numbers in units)  b. 10 - 99 (these are numbers in tens)  c. 100 - 999 (these are numbers in hundreds)  Example 1 1. Write 5 consecutive numbers after each of these numbers a. 489 b. 334 Solution  a. 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494 b. 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339
Examp…